Automotive safety testing has come a long way since the days of dropping bodies down abandoned elevator shafts to mimic crashes in the 1930s (the earliest experiments were done with human cadavers. Corpses were used to measure the strength of human resistance to the crushing and chipping forces to which they were often subjected during car accidents. Measurements were made, for example, by dropping a heavy object onto parts of the body, bones, or the entire body in the elevator shaft. The acceleration of the weight can be calculated very simply. The next step is to put an acceleration gauge on the carcass, strap the carcass to the car, and then do a head-on collision or rollover test on the test site).
The number of fatal road crashes in the United States is at an all-time low, in large part because crash test dummies are more advanced than ever before. Car manufacturers must use test dummies to prove the safety performance of their vehicles before they can be legally sold in Europe and the U.S. The dummies have become ultra-sophisticated humanoid tools for collecting data and assessing risk; they are a true group of unsung heroes.
"The latest dummies can collect information from over 130 sources," says Chris O' Connor, CEO of Humanetics, the world's premier dummy manufacturer, "which is 4-5 times the amount of data that was available just a few years ago."
Humanetics works with insurance companies and academic research institutions to analyze this ever-increasing amount of data. By analyzing the data, they were able to rank the most common types of injuries and the people most at risk of being injured.
Three types of human models used for auto crashes.
1.50% manikin: representing a medium size person with a height of 177 cm and a weight of 86 kg.
2.95% manikin: representing a large body size of 188 cm in height and 108 kg in weight
3.5% mannequin: representing a short stature with a height of 148 cm and weight of 56 kg.
At the NACP European Safety Impact Test Center, Hy-drid3 was used to collect frontal impact information on the following child manikins.
1. 6-month manikin: height 67 cm and weight 10 kg.
2. 12-month manikin: height 76 cm, weight 13 kg.
3. 18-month manikin: height 83 cm, weight 16 kg
4. 3 years old mannequin: height 97 cm, weight 20 kg
5.6 years old mannequin: height 130 cm, weight 30 kg
6.10 years old mannequin: height 138 cm, weight 36 kg.
Most of the mannequins are made of metal and plastic, their chest cavity is made of steel, shoulder blades are made of aluminum, pelvic bones are made of plastic, a mannequin is worth 15 to 300 thousand marks, the mannequin is equipped with about 60 sensors.
A short history of the mannequins used in crash tests.
The first use of mannequins for aircraft seat ejection tests by the United States Air Force in 1948.
Development of a better mannequin Hydrid2 by General Motors in 1973.
Hydrid3 and the US side impact mannequin US SID in the 1980s.
In 1991 Europe launched its own side touch mannequin EURO SID.